Psalm 82: Part Five – The Watchers and the End of the Age

These posts are all excerpted from my newest booklet, Psalm 82: The Divine Council of the Gods, the Judgment of the Watchers and the Inheritance of the Nations. You can buy the booklet here.

In my previous posts (1,  2,  3,  4), I analyzed Psalm 82 to uncover the narrative of Christ’s victory over the powers. In it, we saw a reiteration of the Deuteronomy 32 worldview that depicted fallen Sons of God from Yahweh’s heavenly host being allotted the Gentile nations as an inheritance, while Yahweh kept Israel for his own inheritance. These Watchers over the nations were unjust in their governance, so Yahweh declared he would judge them with death through the resurrection of Messiah, which would take back the allotment from the Watchers and give it to Messiah to inherit the nations.

But if Jesus triumphed over the spiritual powers at the cross and then led them captive in a military style triumphal procession, then how is it that the New Testament speaks of an ongoing struggle with those heavenly principalities and powers for the Christian? Are these territorial powers still an issue for us today?

My short answer is that the principalities and powers over the nations are not an issue for us today, but they were in Paul’s day because when he wrote his New Testament letters, the victory of Christ had been legally inaugurated at the cross, resurrection and ascension, but was not historically consummated until the destruction of the earthly incarnation of the old covenant, the holy temple in Jerusalem in AD 70. That event was the historical completion of the spiritual truth begun a generation earlier.

Paul was writing in a transition period between covenants. The new had been spiritually inaugurated but not historically consummated until the old had been done away with in the earthly realm. The old covenant was fading out but had not yet vanished with the destruction of the historical temple. The book of Hebrews predicts this destruction as a “vanishing.”

Hebrews 8:13–9:9
In speaking of a new covenant, he makes the first one obsolete. And what is becoming obsolete and growing old is ready to vanish away. …By this the Holy Spirit indicates that the way into the [heavenly] holy places is not yet opened as long as the first section [earthly holy place] is still standing (which is symbolic for the present age).

That last parenthesis about the physical holy place being “symbolic of the present age” is in the text of Hebrews. I did not add it. the physical temple is a symbol of the old covenant age that was about to vanish away with the destruction of the temple.

Thus, the spiritual powers had lost their legal right to the Gentile nations at the complex of events that climaxed with the ascension of Jesus Christ. But their actual judgment of death in the fires of Gehenna did not occur until the consummation of the old covenant “present age” of the first century.

Many Christians assume that the “end of the age” or the “last days” is the end of the earth. Thus when Jesus speaks of casting sinners into the furnace of fire at the end of the age, they assume this has not yet happened. After all, does not Isaiah place the inheritance of the Gentiles in a future “last days”?

Isaiah 2:2
2 It shall come to pass in the last days that the mountain of the house of the Lord shall be established as the highest of the mountains, and shall be lifted up above the hills; and all the nations shall flow to it…

But I will show that the judgment of the Watchers in Psalm 82 occurs with the inheritance of the Gentiles which is actually begun in the book of Acts and solidified by AD 70 in the destruction of the temple. The “last days” occurred in the first century and they were the last days of the old covenant, not the last days of the entire earth.

Don’t read on unless you want your spiritual world rocked by this amazing biblical truth…

Acts and the Inheritance of the Gentile Nations

In Acts 2, we read about the first explosion of the Gospel with the first baptism of the Holy Spirit. It was the thing that Jesus had told them to wait for, which would launch them into all the world with the Good News (Acts 1:4). Pentecost would be the historical inauguration of the heavenly new covenant achieved by the death, resurrection and ascension of Christ. It would be the pouring out of God’s Spirit upon his people (Isa 32:12-19; 44:5; Ezek 36:25-28; 37:14).

The disciples asked Jesus if this was the time of the restoration of Israel (1:6). Jesus told them that the regathering or restoration of Israel would begin when the Holy Spirit came upon them soon.

And what was the restoration, but the pouring out of God’s Spirit and the regathering of Jews from all over the known world in a spiritual metaphorical resurrection? (Ezek 37). So when the disciples were baptized with the Spirit at Pentecost and began to speak in foreign tongues, that was the fulfillment of God’s pouring out of his Spirit.

But it was also the beginning of the regathering of Jews because “there were dwelling in Jerusalem Jews, devout men from every nation under heaven” (Acts 2:5). The list of nations that are described (Acts 2:9-11) just happens to be a representative sampling of the seventy nations of Genesis 10, the very nations that were allotted as an inheritance to the Watchers.

Just in case there was any doubt of that regathering, Peter said, “From every nation under heaven.” It’s almost as if he anticipated some future Christians arguing that since he didn’t list ALL the seventy nations, then the prophecy could not have been fulfilled yet. But Peter says, “No, I am not restricting my references to only the nations I mentioned, because they are coming from ALL the nations under heaven.”

But those seventy nations were also “all the nations” to which the Jews were scattered (Amos 9:9). And the scattering of the tribes of Israel was described as being swallowed up by the nations (Hosea 8:8). In other words, the tribes of Israel had become so intermingled with the Gentile nations that for Diaspora Jews to return to Jerusalem and convert to Messiah constituted the nations being drawn into the new covenant kingdom of God.

According to the apostle Luke, Pentecost of AD 30 was not only the ingathering of the tribes of Israel, it was the beginning of the inheritance of the nations — “every nation under heaven.”

Pentecost, AD 30, was the beginning of regathering the scattered Jews AND the reclamation of the divided nations. Pentecost was the undoing of both Exile and Babel.

Scholar Michael Heiser explains this connection of Pentecost to Babel and Exile:

There are two key terms in [Acts 2] that connect it back to Babel in an unmistakable way. The flaming tongues are described as “divided” (Greek: diamerizo), and the crowd, composed of Jews from all the nations, is said to have been “confused” (Greek: suncheo).

The second term, suncheo (v. 6), is the same word used in the Septuagint version of the Babel story in Genesis 11:7: “Come, let us go down and confuse [Septuagint: suncheo] their language there.” The multiplicity of nations represented at Pentecost is another link to Babel. Each nation had a national language. More importantly, all those nations referred to in Acts 2:9–11 had been disinherited by Yahweh when they were divided.

The other word of importance (diamerizo; v. 3) is also used in the Septuagint, but not in Genesis 11. It is found exactly where one would expect it if one were thinking in cosmic-geographical terms—Deuteronomy 32:8 (Septuagint: “When the Most High divided [diamerizo] the nations, when he scattered humankind, he fixed the boundaries of the nations”). This is a strong indication that Luke is drawing on the Septuagint, and specifically the Tower of Babel story in Genesis 11 and Deuteronomy 32:8–9, to describe the events on Pentecost.[1]

The inheritance of the nations involved the gathering of Gentiles together with the Jews that occurred all throughout the book of Acts. Notice these passages that say that the evangelism of Acts is the very fulfillment of the promise to gather the Gentiles with the Jews as his people:

Acts 15:13–19
13 After they finished speaking, James replied, “Brothers, listen to me. 14 Simeon has related how God first visited the Gentiles, to take from them a people for his name. 15 And with this the words of the prophets agree, just as it is written.

Acts 26:23
[Paul:] 23 “that the Christ must suffer and that, by being the first to rise from the dead, he would proclaim light both to our people and to the Gentiles.”

The “ingathering” of Gentiles with Jews was based upon unity of belief in Jesus as Messiah. Isaiah had prophesied that when Messiah first came (the branch of Jesse), in that very day, the Lord would “recover the remnant that remains of his people,” from all the nations. “In that day,” the root of Jesse would be “raised (resurrected) as a signal for the nations,” and would “assemble the banished of Israel and gather the dispersed of Judah from the four corners of the earth” (Isa 11:1-2, 10-12). In that day of Messiah’s arrival and resurrection (his raising as a signal), he would draw both the remnant of Israel as well as Gentile believers. Paul likened that raising of the signal to Christ’s resurrection, and confirmed this Isaianic promise as already being fulfilled during his ministry:

Romans 15:8–9, 12
8 For I tell you that Christ became a servant to the circumcised to show God’s truthfulness, in order to confirm the promises given to the patriarchs, 9 and in order that the Gentiles might glorify God for his mercy…12 And again Isaiah says, “The root of Jesse will come, even he who arises to rule the Gentiles; in him will the Gentiles hope.

What were the promises given to the patriarchs that Paul says were confirmed (“verified”) in Christ’s resurrection? All of them, including the regathering (Acts 3:24; 32; 15:13-15; 24:24; 26:6). In fact, most of the prophecies about the regathering of Israel almost always add the inclusion of Gentiles as a simultaneous event.

But the point is that Paul writes explicitly that the Isaianic prophecy about the gathering of the remnant along with the Gentiles was already being fulfilled in his own day, not in some distant future.

The Last Days of the Old Covenant

Back to Pentecost. In Acts 2, Peter then preaches a sermon about how this baptism of the Spirit meant that they were in the last days as Joel described, a time when the “Day of the Lord” was coming for Israel.

That Day of the Lord was the destruction of Jerusalem and the temple in AD 70. This has to be the case because Peter clearly states that the “last days” and “Day of the Lord” of Joel were being fulfilled in AD 30s, not in a distant future (Acts 2:16. See my book End Times Bible Prophecy for the details on this).

Acts 2:15–17
15 For these people are not drunk, as you suppose, since it is only the third hour of the day. 16 But this is what was uttered through the prophet Joel: 17 “ ‘And in the last days it shall be, God declares, that I will pour out my Spirit on all flesh…

There could be no more explicit claim of Joel’s “last days” being fulfilled in their day than Peter saying, “This is what was uttered through the prophet Joel.” This is what was uttered. Not, “this is yet to come,” or “this is like what will be.” This is what was uttered. Pentecost was the beginning of the promise of God’s outpoured spirit and it meant they were in the last days in the first century. So the last days are not the last days of earth. They must be the last days of something else.

The rest of Joel that Peter also quotes predicts the Day of the Lord. Christians tend to assume that the Day of the Lord is a reference to a universal end of time judgment. But in the Bible, it is not. In the Bible, “Day of the Lord” is used to describe a variety of local judgments by God on nations, peoples or cities (Zeph 1:7-15; Isa 13:6-19). The Day of the Lord Peter refers to in Acts 2 is not a worldwide universal judgment, but the localized national and city judgment of God. And what city or people were going to be judged in the coming Day of the Lord? Jesus said it would be Israel and her city and temple in Jerusalem. (Matt 23:37-24:2; 21:37-45; 22:1-9; Luke 19:41-44).

Jesus described the Day of the Lord for Israel in his generation. He called it the “days of vengeance,” with “wrath upon his people.” That Day of the Lord was Yahweh using the Romans to destroy the holy city and temple in AD 70 because the Jewish nation as a whole did not accept the “time of the visitation” of Messiah (Luke 19:43-44).

Luke 21:20–24
20 “But when you see Jerusalem surrounded by armies, then know that its desolation has come near. 21 Then let those who are in Judea flee to the mountains, and let those who are inside the city depart, and let not those who are out in the country enter it, 22 for these are days of vengeance, to fulfill all that is written. 23 Alas for women who are pregnant and for those who are nursing infants in those days! For there will be great distress upon the earth and wrath against this people. 24 They will fall by the edge of the sword and be led captive among all nations, and Jerusalem will be trampled underfoot by the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles are fulfilled.

Messiah would arrive in the last days of the old covenant to bring the new covenant that replaced it. It was the age of Messiah that brought an end to the previous ages. And the historical event that marked the end of that old covenant age was the destruction of the old covenant temple and those who refused to let it go.

The apostles knew they were in the last days in the first century, also referred to as the end of the ages. They said so:

Hebrews 1:1–2
1 Long ago, at many times and in many ways, God spoke to our fathers by the prophets, 2 but in these last days he has spoken to us by his Son, whom he appointed the heir of all things.

Hebrews 9:26
26 for then he would have had to suffer repeatedly since the foundation of the world. But as it is, he has appeared once for all at the end of the ages to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself.

1 Corinthians 10:11
11 Now these things happened to them as an example, but they were written down for our instruction, on whom the end of the ages has come.

The New Testament explicitly states that the first century was the last days, the end of the age. Jesus’ sacrifice on the cross marked the purpose of that age. His death and resurrection would mark the arrival of the Messianic age to come that Jews everywhere looked forward to.

The Messianic age had come. The old covenant age was fading out and would vanish when its symbol, the earthly Jerusalem temple, was destroyed within a generation of the New Testament being written (Heb 8:13; 9:9-8-9; 10:9). Therefore, the last days could not have been the last days of the whole earth, but the last days of the old covenant, the end of the old covenant age.[2]

And those last days of the old covenant would include the destruction of the spiritual powers over the nations that were a part of that old covenant Deuteronomy 32 worldview. As I explained earlier, 2Peter 3 describes those last days as the Day of the Lord, when the stoicheia (the elemental spirits over the nations) would be burned up in judgment along with unbelieving sinners (Rev 20:15; 21:8). The judgment of the Watchers that Jude said would occur at “the judgment of the great day” occurred in AD 70 with the destruction of the old covenant and all its earthly and spiritual elements. Space does not permit an explanation of how 2Peter and Revelation were fulfilled in the first century (see my book End Times Bible Prophecy)

Now the last days of Isaiah 2 makes more sense. Messiah arrived in the last days of the old covenant to usher in the mountain of the kingdom of God (Dan 2:44-45), that now accepted the Gentiles that were previously under the authority of the Watchers.

Isaiah 2:2
2 It shall come to pass in the last days that the mountain of the house of the Lord shall be established as the highest of the mountains, and shall be lifted up above the hills; and all the nations shall flow to it…

That messianic mountain was also predicted by Daniel to occur in the time of the Roman empire with the coming of Messiah as a heavenly cornerstone of a kingdom that would overcome all kingdoms and grow to be a mountain that filled the earth (Dan 2:35, 44-45). Jesus was that stone who came in the time of ancient Rome (Acts 4:11), his kingdom was established in the first century (Matt 12:28), and it is currently growing to fill the earth (Matt 13:31-33), just as Daniel prophesied.

The Story of it All

So here is the summary narrative of what I have sought to exegete from Psalm 82 in conjunction with the rest of Scripture: The Watchers had been allotted the Gentile nations in their ancient rebellion and God kept Israel as his own allotment. But in the last days of the old covenant, Messiah came to take back that inheritance. His death resurrection and ascension to the right hand of God was his enthronement that empowered him to overthrow the Watchers and take back their territorial rights over the Gentile nations. He then regathers his remnant of Jews from all the nations through the gospel proclamation of his new covenant kingdom. But this spiritual inauguration of the kingdom is not historically consummated until the old covenant temple is destroyed. That new covenant now includes the Gentiles, no longer in bondage to the powers, who now flow into the heavenly Mount Zion, the New Jerusalem, the Body of Christ.

There are no longer territorial Watchers who have power over the nations because Christ vanquished them, dragged them through the spiritual streets in triumph, took back their inheritance and judged them by stripping them of immortality and most likely casting them into the lake of fire. He did this in the first century when the old covenant that included the Gentile allotment was completely abolished at the destruction of the old covenant temple in AD 70.

To see how the rule of the fallen Watchers over the Gentile nations may have played out in history, read my novel series, Chronicles of the Nephilim.

To see what the Watcher’s final destruction might have looked like, read my series Chronicles of the Apocalypse.

For more theological explanation of the last days and eschatology see my book End Times Bible Prophecy.



[1]  Michael S. Heiser, The Unseen Realm: Recovering the Supernatural Worldview of the Bible, First Edition (Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press, 2015), 298.

[2] See “Chapter 9: End of the Age/Last Days,” Brian Godawa, End Times Bible Prophecy: It’s Not What They Told You (Embedded Pictures, 2017), 70-80.

11 comments on “Psalm 82: Part Five – The Watchers and the End of the Age

  • Wonderful work. I Will Buy all yr books. Finally a So of Yhwh who has discernment and the guidance of the Ruah HaQadesh. Thank You for the light.

  • Hi Brian, Thank you for this very enlightening post. But do you have any explanation for why we continue to see demonic oppression/possession even after 70 AD? How do you explain Islam, Hinduism and similar idolatrous cultures continue to flourish to this day? Thanks

    • Josh,
      Thanks for your kind words. I will putting a post soon to address that in detail, but here is what I wrote to someone with a similar question:

      I think it is important to consider that many in the divine council crowd often become so focused on the heavenly principalities that we forget that they are not the origin of man’s evil, which resides within our souls. Our sinful nature accounts for our evil, not external forces. So we don’t really need Watchers to engage in the horrendous “evil that men do.” It is dangerous to root the focus of our evil outside of humankind.

      Remember, there was no Watcher that caused Cain to slay Abel, and that is microcosm story of human nature’s violence. The Watchers were definitely part of the evil that brought the judgment of the Flood, but they were the tempters and facilitators of human evil, not the cause of it. Humanity’s nature is totally depraved without the need of demons to cause the evil of WWI, WWII, the holocaust, etc. In an interesting twist, I think the movie Wonder Woman is a good example of my argument. Diana thinks that if she kills the god of war, war will cease, but she learns that man’s nature remains evil regardless of what happens in the heavenlies (I know that fictional story takes place after AD 70, but the point is similar to what I am saying about now).

      That said, I might consider Watchers over nations now if it were not for the Scriptures that seem to emphatically communicate that Christ defeated the powers and dragged them through the streets in a military triumphal procession.

      Ephesians 4:8 (ESV)
      8 Therefore it says, “When he ascended on high he led a host of captives, and he gave gifts to men.”

      Colossians 2:15 (ESV)
      15 He disarmed the rulers and authorities and put them to open shame, by triumphing over them in him.

      That language of victory reads to me quite complete and decided. They were dragged as captives, disarmed, shamed and triumphed over. That is what happened to rulers who were conquered by Roman armies. They no longer had authority over their nations because they were conquered by the victor. Victory and captivity include the notion of loss of power and authority of the vanquished.

      Couple that with the fact that Christ’s heavenly enthronement is above all authority, and it becomes quite explicit to me that Christ took away their authority.

      Christ’s inheritance of the nations literally means that the Watchers lost their inheritance. Their inheritance came with their authority. It is all a package. Inheritance means ownership of allotted territory, and that is what Messiah took away when he inherited their allotment.

      Of course, that doesn’t mean there isn’t any demonic activity or forces around. It just means that all heavenly authority has been put down by Jesus.

      As I indicated earlier, if one thinks that the disinheriting of the Watcher’s authority means that there is no explanation of the evil in humanity, then perhaps one has forgotten that human evil is not located in heavenly beings but in humanity.

  • Stephen Holmes says:

    Sir, your theological ideas rob the remnant of Israel of her future inheritance on this earth in Jerusalem–– when Jesus reigns as the Son of David, from the throne of David upon the elevated Mt. Zion. Israel is still the nation by which all of the nations of the earth will be blessed at her future regathering as Isaiah 2, 60 and 66 truly report in agreement with Zechariah 14 and Ezekiel 36-48. I pray brother, as Paul prayed for all of us gentiles, that you not be uninformed of the mystery that is at work, “so that you will not be wise in your own estimation—that a partial hardening has happened to Israel until the fullness of the Gentiles has come in; and so all Israel will be saved; just as it is written, “THE DELIVERER WILL COME FROM ZION, HE WILL REMOVE UNGODLINESS FROM JACOB.” I genuinely would not want you to fall into the category of brothers who have become arrogant towards the branches, “but if you are arrogant, remember that it is not you who supports the root, but the root supports you. You will say then, “Branches were broken off so that I might be grafted in.” Quite right, they were broken off for their unbelief, but you stand by your faith. Do not be conceited, but fear; for if God did not spare the natural branches, He will not spare you, either. Behold then the kindness and severity of God; to those who fell, severity, but to you, God’s kindness, if you continue in His kindness; otherwise you also will be cut off.”

    • Stephen,
      Thank you for your challenging comments.
      As you have already noted, we disagree quite substantially over theological issues.
      But I would like to correct some of your misunderstandings with Scripture.
      The remnant of Israel were those Jews in the first century who believed in Jesus as Messiah. They are not modern day Jews. Notice that Paul clearly says that the remnant, “the elect,” obtained what the rest of Israel failed to obtain, namely salvation through Messiah. Notice, it is past tense, not future tense as you are arguing.

      Romans 11:5–8
      5 So too at the present time there is a remnant, chosen by grace. 6 But if it is by grace, it is no longer on the basis of works; otherwise grace would no longer be grace. 7 What then? Israel failed to obtain what it was seeking. The elect obtained it, but the rest were hardened, 8 as it is written, “God gave them a spirit of stupor, eyes that would not see and ears that would not hear, down to this very day.”

      You say “when Jesus reigns as the Son of David from the throne of David upon Mt. Zion. Yet, contrary to you, the Scriptures say that Jesus reigns RIGHT NOW from the throne of David on Mount Zion. Notice that Peter says here that Christ’s resurrection and ascension to the right hand of God fulfills the promise of Messiah seated on the Davidic throne.

      Acts 2:30–33
      30 Being therefore a prophet, and knowing that God had sworn with an oath to him that he would set one of his descendants on his throne, 31 he foresaw and spoke about the resurrection of the Christ, that he was not abandoned to Hades, nor did his flesh see corruption. 32 This Jesus God raised up, and of that we all are witnesses. 33 Being therefore exalted at the right hand of God…

      Notice that Psalm 2 says Messiah will sit on the throne of David in Zion.

      Psalm 2:6–7
      6 “As for me, I have set my King on Zion, my holy hill.” 7 I will tell of the decree: The LORD said to me, “You are my Son; today I have begotten you.

      And then Paul says emphatically that Psalm 2 was fulfilled at the resurrection and ascension of Christ:

      Acts 13:32–33
      32 And we bring you the good news that what God promised to the fathers, 33 this he has fulfilled to us their children by raising Jesus, as also it is written in the second Psalm, “ ‘You are my Son, today I have begotten you.’

      Notice here that the New Testament says that we the Church have come to Jesus seated on Mount Zion RIGHT NOW. It is not an earthly Mount, but a heavenly one, because the kingdom of God is not of this earth.

      Hebrews 12:22–24
      22 But you have come to Mount Zion and to the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to innumerable angels in festal gathering, 23 and to the assembly of the firstborn who are enrolled in heaven, and to God, the judge of all, and to the spirits of the righteous made perfect, 24 and to Jesus, the mediator of a new covenant.

      You speak of a future regathering of Israel, but the New Testament says that the Regathering of Israel from all the nations occurred in the New Covenant in Messiah that came with Jesus. Notice that Acts says the Pentecost was the start of that regathering of Jews to Messiah “From every nation under heaven.”

      Acts 2:5
      5 Now there were dwelling in Jerusalem Jews, devout men from every nation under heaven.
      Acts 2:16–17
      16 But this is what was uttered through the prophet Joel: 17 “ ‘And in the last days it shall be, God declares, that I will pour out my Spirit on all flesh…

      The pouring out of the Spirit was part of the very promise of the regathering (Ezek 36:25-28; 37:14). They were part and parcel of the same promise, and they happened together as Peter said in the New Covenant Gospel.

      Your understanding of the Root of Israel is flawed. The root is true spiritual Israel, it is not physical or geopolitical or genetic Israel. It has to be “spiritual Israel” because it included both Jew and GENTILE believers. I do not suggest that Gentiles are the only true Israel. All Jew and Gentile believers are true Israel. Those genetic Jews in modern day Israel who reject Messiah Jesus are cut off from Israel. Don’t forget, Paul said that just because you are a genetic Jew of physical descendency does NOT make you a Jew, because the true Jew is defined by FAITH, not physical or national identity.

      Romans 9:6–8
      6 But it is not as though the word of God has failed. For not all who are descended from Israel belong to Israel, 7 and not all are children of Abraham because they are his offspring, but “Through Isaac shall your offspring be named.” 8 This means that it is not the children of the flesh who are the children of God, but the children of the promise are counted as offspring.

      I believe you have a fundamental misunderstanding of the Gospel and may be thinking like the first century Jews who missed Messiah because they were looking for an earthly ruler and missed the heavenly kingdom.

      You quote Romans 11:26 that the Deliverer will come from Zion and banish ungodliness from Jacob.
      Well, yes, Messiah DID COME FROM ZION. He is Jesus, and you did not quote the second part of that verse, “And this will be my covenant with them, when I take away their sins.” that is the NEW COVENANT that came and took away the sins of the remnant who believed in Messiah.

      There is more to say, but I recommend my booklet, “Israel in Bible Prophecy” that can be downloaded from Amazon here to help clarify what the Scriptures say over Dispensational distortions of Scripture.

  • I don’t know how much historical validity this has, but I once read an article claiming that futurism was proposed by a Jesuit priest named Manuel Lacunza, posing as a Jewish convert, in order to convince Protestants that the antichrist wouldn’t be the then pope, but another figure in the future.

    A preacher named Irving Wallace translated the book into English and incorporated its teachings in his church. Those ideas spread to another preacher named John Darby, which further developed the dispensational theology and went to America to teach it.

    A man with a murky past name Cyrus Scofield incorporated Darby’s writings into a Bible he edited and distributed across many churches and Bible schools, influencing the authors of the Left Behind books, Jerry Falwell, John Hagee, Hal Lindsey, etc.


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