Scholarly Research

Chronicles of the Watchers


On the Origin of the Watchers
By Amar Annus
Subtitle: “A Comparative Study of the Antediluvian Wisdom in Mesopotamian and Jewish Traditions.” From the Journal for the Study of the Pseudepigrapha. Anyone taking seriously the notion of Watchers must engage with this scholarly paper. It is a fascinating study.

Divine Council Definition
Michael S. Heiser PhD
A good basic intro to the Divine Council of the Sons of God. These include the Watchers.

The Ancient Exegesis of Genesis 6:2, 4
Robert C. Newman (Grace Theological Journal)
Interpretation of the Sons of God and Nephilim in history.

Deuteronomy 32:8 and the Sons of God
Michael S. Heiser PhD, Hebrew Bible and Ancient Semitic Languages
An amazing explanation of the Divine Council and how the Sons of God are alotted territories by God to rule over.

The Sons of God in Gen 6.1-4: An Example of Evangelical Demythologization
Willem A. Van Gemeren (Westminster Journal).
A good summary of the views with critiques, and a defense of the supernatural interpretation

The Council of Yahweh
Wheeler Robinson
Introduction to the operations of the Divine Council in the Bible.

God and the Gods in Assembly: An Interpretation of Psalm 82
Maititiahu Tsevat
The gods in Psalm 82 are definitely supernatural Sons of God, NOT human rulers or judges.

Nephilim, Giants

Giants in Other Ancient Texts
A listing and translation of specific references compiled by Brian Godawa

The Meaning of the Word Nephilim: Fact Vs. Fantasy
Michael S. Heiser PhD, Hebrew Bible and Ancient Semitic Languages
The Nephilim in the Bible are giants, dude, they really are giants.

Giants in Ancient Warfare
Adrienne Mayor (The Quarterly Journal of Military History)
An historical article covering the Biblical period and into the Roman period and beyond.

Babylonian Magi

The Magi
By Edwin Yamauchi
This is a chapter out of his book, Persia and the Bible. It’s a great scholarly intro into the Magi of Babylon.

Books on China and God

The Discovery of Genesis
By Ethel R. Nelson
This linguistic analysis of the Chinese language suggests the ancient Chinese were well aware of the God of Abraham. Readers will discover the possibility that the Chinese were a remnant of the Tower of Babel dispersion. The authors start with the observance of some astonishing points of correspondence between certain characters in the Chinese language and elements of the Genesis account of man’s early beginnings. They go on to analyze dozens of the ideographic pictures that make up words in the Chinese language. The evidence they compile supports the thesis that the ancient picture writing of the Chinese language embodies memories of man’s earliest days. The characters when broken down into component parts, reflect elements of the story of God and man recorded in the early chapters of Genesis.


Finding God in Ancient China: How the Ancient Chinese Worshiped the God of the Bible
by Chan Kei Thong, Charlene L. Fu
While many consider early Chinese history to be composed of myths, fables, and legends, in Finding God in Ancient China author and scholar Chan Kei Thong believes that the language, stories, and rituals actually occurred during this time period and honored a creator who has since been forgotten in modern Chinese culture. According to Thong, after the division of nations at the Tower of Babel one of the groups journeyed across the Asian continent and settled in what is today the region of China. It was this group of people who established the first Chinese culture known as the Long Shan. And from this culture the first ruling dynasty, the Xia Dynasty, would emerge. Thong claims that the writings, beliefs, actions, and language conventions that were employed by the Xia Dynasty all point to a belief in the one true God; the same God who confused the languages at Babel and is today the God of the Christian faith.